Treatment & Complications


Acute Complication

Hypoglycemia

Hypoglycemia is a state of low blood glucose in the blood. i.e. below 60mg/dl.

Symptoms of Hypoglycemia:

  • Excess hunger
  • Sweating
  • Giddiness
  • Shivering (tremors)
  • Weakness
  • Palpitation (rapid heartbeat)
  • Blurred vision
  • Behavioural change
  • Fainting attacks or blackouts
  • Convulsions (fits)

Causes of Hypoglycemia:

  • Over dose of diabetes medications
  • Delaying or missing meals, wrong timing of insulin and meals
  • Excessive exercise, especially on empty stomach
  • Consumption of alcohol on an empty stomach,

Treatment of Hypoglycemia:

If the person is conscious and alert, any food or drink can be taken immediately.

If reaction is severe and the person is unconscious, place some sugar or glucose in the mouth between the gums and check.

If the person has still not recovered, consult the doctor immediately. Intravenous glucose infusion will be necessary.

Prevention of Hypoglycemia:

  • Consume small frequent meals with snacks at appropriate time intervals.
  • Check your blood sugar regularly.
  • Reduce dose of medication, when you experience low blood glucose symptoms.

Tips:

  • Always eat on time.
  • Have a piece of sugar candy with you always.
  • Be alert about the symptoms of hypoglycemia.
  • Do not be afraid of the previous unpleasant episodes of hypoglycemia. Over come your fears with more self care.

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Insulin is vital to patients with type 1 diabetes - they cannot live without a source of exogenous insulin. Without insulin, patients with type 1 diabetes develop severely elevated blood sugar levels. This leads to increased urine glucose, which in turn leads to excessive loss of fluid and electrolytes in the urine. Lack of insulin also causes the inability to store fat and protein along with breakdown of existing fat and protein stores. This dysregulation, results in the process of ketosis and the release of ketones into the blood. Ketones turn the blood acidic, a condition called diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA).

Symptoms:

  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Abdominal pain

Without prompt medical treatment, patients with diabetic ketoacidosis can rapidly go into shock, coma, and even death may result.

Causes:

  • Infection
  • Stress
  • Trauma
  • Missing dose of insulin

Treatment:

  • Intravenous administration of fluid, electrolytes and insulin.
  • Antibiotics are given for infections

Treatment & Complications


Acute Complication

Hypoglycemia

Hypoglycemia is a state of low blood glucose in the blood. i.e. below 60mg/dl.

Symptoms of Hypoglycemia:

  • Excess hunger
  • Sweating
  • Giddiness
  • Shivering (tremors)
  • Weakness
  • Palpitation (rapid heartbeat)
  • Blurred vision
  • Behavioural change
  • Fainting attacks or blackouts
  • Convulsions (fits)

Causes of Hypoglycemia:

  • Over dose of diabetes medications
  • Delaying or missing meals, wrong timing of insulin and meals
  • Excessive exercise, especially on empty stomach
  • Consumption of alcohol on an empty stomach,

Treatment of Hypoglycemia:

If the person is conscious and alert, any food or drink can be taken immediately.

If reaction is severe and the person is unconscious, place some sugar or glucose in the mouth between the gums and check.

If the person has still not recovered, consult the doctor immediately. Intravenous glucose infusion will be necessary.

Prevention of Hypoglycemia:

  • Consume small frequent meals with snacks at appropriate time intervals.
  • Check your blood sugar regularly.
  • Reduce dose of medication, when you experience low blood glucose symptoms.

Tips:

  • Always eat on time.
  • Have a piece of sugar candy with you always.
  • Be alert about the symptoms of hypoglycemia.
  • Do not be afraid of the previous unpleasant episodes of hypoglycemia. Over come your fears with more self care.

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Insulin is vital to patients with type 1 diabetes - they cannot live without a source of exogenous insulin. Without insulin, patients with type 1 diabetes develop severely elevated blood sugar levels. This leads to increased urine glucose, which in turn leads to excessive loss of fluid and electrolytes in the urine. Lack of insulin also causes the inability to store fat and protein along with breakdown of existing fat and protein stores. This dysregulation, results in the process of ketosis and the release of ketones into the blood. Ketones turn the blood acidic, a condition called diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA).

Symptoms:

  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Abdominal pain

Without prompt medical treatment, patients with diabetic ketoacidosis can rapidly go into shock, coma, and even death may result.

Causes:

  • Infection
  • Stress
  • Trauma
  • Missing dose of insulin

Treatment:

  • Intravenous administration of fluid, electrolytes and insulin.
  • Antibiotics are given for infections