The prevalence of Type 2 diabetes in adults varies in different populations depending upon the affluence and ethnicity. It has been reported that the major risk factors for diabetes in any population are obesity, sedentary life style and high intake of food, rich in sugars and fats. Indians have a high genetic susceptibility to develop diabetes because of the increased genetic susceptibility and the tendency to have central adiposity.
Increased availability of fast food, rich in refined carbohydrates and fats is one of the primary reasons. The sedentary life habit has worsened due to prolonged television watching. People tend to spend more time watching television and travelling rather than spending time in walking.
The younger generations who are in the information technology industry seem to be at a higher risk because of spending more time working with computers and consuming junk foods. These factors increase the risk of obesity, diabetes and hypertension. Invariably this will increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases and other related complications.
Type 2 diabetes testing should be done in all adults > 45 yrs, who are overweight or obese (BMI ≥25 or ≥23 in Asian Americans) who have ≥1 diabetes risk factor 1
- Physical inactivity
- First-degree relative with diabetes
- A1C ≥ 5.7%, IGT, or IFG on previous testing
- Conditions associated with insulin resistance: severe obesity, acanthosis nigricans, PCOS
- Women who delivered a baby >9 lb or were diagnosed with GDM
- Cardio Vascular Disease history
- HDL-C <35 mg/dL ± TG >250 mg/dL
- Hypertension (≥140/90 mm Hg or on therapy)
- Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes—2015, Diabetes Care Volume 38, Supplement 1, January 2015